“Keramin” sanitary ware production technologies
“Keramin” uses two types of technologies for sanitary ware production at the “Stroyfarfor” Factory:
- plaster mould casting
- high-pressure polymeric mould casting
  • Automated plaster mould casting represents traditional technology for sanitary ware ceramics production. Today “Keramin” uses new automated casting machines and own-produces plaster moulds, made by the automated installation with weight batching and vacuum evaporation. This allows to increase plaster mould turnover to 100 cycles.  
  • Automated high-pressure polymeric mould casting machines (supplied by the Italian company SACMI) – are the most advanced technical achievement in ceramics industry. They allow to shorten production time and to increase the quality of the products. At the same time, polymeric moulds have a longer cycle life. One mould is suitable for production of more than 25 000 pieces of sanitary ware. 
Both of these production technologies are implemented at the factory, well integrating into a general technological scheme. Further, we will look closer at every step of the scheme.
Preparation of slurry
Slurry is a mass prepared in a special way from raw materials which, depending on their functions, can classify as: 
  • plastic materials (clay, caolin), which form the base of the ceramic body in the process of casting, drying and baking in a kiln
  • nonplastic materials (quartz sand, graphic granite, product breakage) which stabilize the form (prevent deformation)
At present “Stroyfarfor” Factory uses the same slurry for both casting technologies. The raw materials are mostly imported from Ukraine, Russia, Germany, Italy and so on. 
Cast ware creation
To create cast ware with a traditional automated plaster mould casting machine the slurry is poured into plaster moulds. Then it takes 1,5 or 2 hours for the ceramic body to form. After that, the excess slurry is discharged and the body is air dried for 30 to 50 minutes. The full length of the technological cycle is from 3,5 to 4 hours. After the cast ware is taken out of the mould it is processed and dried. 
The process of cast ware creation with a high-pressure casting machine is significantly shorter. A polymeric mould filled with slurry is being filled with air.
Once the air pressure reaches 13 bars the excess water is discharges through the pores of the mould. This way the forming of the ceramic body takes only from 20 to 30 minutes. The body has equal thickness on all sides, which eliminates the possibility of deformation. 
The most advanced machine complex at the “Stroyfarfor” Factory consists of two high-pressure casting machines and a robotic arm. This complex is used for production of complex sanitary ware consisting of several pieces. By gluing the pieces together, it is possible to produce toilet bowls with more hygienic and functional spray flushing and a pedestal covering over the siphon and pipe, giving the WC a more aesthetic look.
Cast ware treatment and drying
Cast ware has significant moister content when it is taken out of the moulds. The moisture content shouldn’t exceed 1% before the body is glazed. Thus after a special treatment the cast ware needs to be dried. The drying takes place while the cast ware is moving along on batches (at the temperature of 30°С), and in the automated conveyor dryer produced by the Italian company Progetti (at the temperature of 100°С). The cast ware has different moisture level depending on the production technology, that’s why the drying process differs in length from 17 hours for polymeric cast ware to 1-1.5 days for plaster cast ware.
After drying the cast ware is glazed. Glazing greatly influences the appearance and quality of the ready sanitary ware ceramics. The process of glazing for all of the cast ware, no matter what technology is used for its production, is carried out by 5 automated glazing units with GA 900 EV spraying robots (production of SACMI). Using these glazing units and high quality imported materials for glaze preparation provides even glaze coverage and luminous whiteness of the ceramic products. Glazed sanitary ware is branded with “Keramin” logo for which makes the sanitary ware more recognizable among the competitor brands.
Firing is the final operation of the technological cycle. It is carried out in tunnel kilns (production of SACMI company). The process takes from 19 to 22 hours. The temperature in the kiln first rises up to 1200°С and then lowers gradually. Such temperature settings are necessary to receive high quality of both – the body and the glaze. Firing with one of the latest technology kilns allows to significantly cut the possibility of such defects as pin holes, specks and blisters. “Stroyfarfor” Factory has an refire kiln used for single firing after the “reparation” of the defects that can be repaired.  
Quality control takes place on all stages of production throughout the technological process. Sorting is the final stage of the quality control system. All of the products put on the market comply with the standards according to EN 997 and EN 14688. 
Before the products get to the warehouse, they are completed with necessary components such as fill and flush kits, seats and covers, mounting hardware and packed.
Durable high quality fill and flush kits that come with “Keramin” toilets are imported from Portugal, Czech Republic and Russia. Seats and covers are produces at “Keramin”.
Wash-basins are completed with chrome plated overflow covers and mounting hardware.
“Keramin” uses treble-lined corrugated board for packaging. Every item has its own package with all the necessary markings such as name of product, dimensions, bar code, weight, number of packer, date and time of packing.